Research

Preliminary Results from a Telecollaborative Exchange between Japan and Taiwan using Facebook Groups

IMG_1836According to David Crystal[1. Crystal, D. (2003). English as a Global Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. DOI 10.5785/20-1-80], a British linguist, nearly 3 out of 4 English users are “non-natives”. From a sociolinguistic perspective this means that English is no longer the language of the few, but the lingua franca of the many[2. Canagarajah, S. (2014). In search of a new paradigm for teaching English as an international language. TESOL Journal, 5(4), 767-785. DOI 10.1002/tesj.166] [3. Jenkins, J. & Leung, C. (2013). English as a Lingua Franca. The Companion to Language Assessment IV, 13(95), 1605–1616. DOI 10.1002/9781118411360.wbcla047] [4. Ke, I. C., & Cahyani, H. (2014). Learning to become users of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF): How ELF online communication affects Taiwanese learners’ beliefs of English. System, 46, 28-38. DOI 10.1016/j.system.2014.07.008]. Mutual ownership of English as a lingua franca comes with the shared responsibility of intercultural communication[5. Houghton, S. (2009). The role of intercultural communicative competence in the development of world Englishes and lingua francas. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 15, 70-95. Retreived from http://journalarticle.ukm.my/1051/1/5-Stephanie_Houghton.pdf] [6. Hülmbauer, C., Böhringer, H., & Seidlhofer, B. (2008). Introducing English as a lingua franca (ELF): Precursor and partner in intercultural communication. Synergies Europe, 3, 25-36. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/30870560/hulmbauer.pdf]; however, this can be particularly challenging for those from a homogeneous society like Japan[7. Neulip, J. W., Chaudoir, M., & McCroskey, J. C. (2001). A cross-cultural comparison of ethnocentrism among Japanese and United States college students. Communication Research Reports, 18(2), 137-146. DOI 10.1080/08824090109384791]. And yet, the Japanese Ministry of Education[8. MEXT. (2010, June 21). The Concept of Global Human Resource Development Focusing on the East Asian Region. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/english/highered/1303540.htm] has decided that exchanges between Japanese students and East Asian students are vital to Japan’s future. Therefore, finding ways to increase Japanese students’ intercultural experience is paramount.

Social Learning Benefits Learning Performance

Social learning offers the potential to increase learning performance[9. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press. DOI 10.2307/3340496] [10. Bruffee, K. A. (1999). Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore, MD. Johns Hopkins University Press.] [11. Stahl, G., Koschmann, T., & Suthers, D. (2014). Computer-supported collaborative learning: An historical perspective. Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences, 2014, 479-500. DOI 10.1017/cbo9781139519526.029]. One interdependent learning model emphasises its importance, specifically in cases of computer supported collaborative learning.

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Social media seems to offer the most accessible platform for distance social learning. However, according to Kreijins et al.[12. Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P., Jochems, W. (2003). Identifying the pitfalls for social interaction in computer-supported collaborative learning environments: a review of the research. Computers in Human Behavior, 19(3), 335-353. DOI 10.1016/s0747-5632(02)00057-2], we should not rely on the platform to instigate communication.

The Thoeory: Digital Sojourn

Digital Sojourn is an idea that has been on my mind ever since reading Michael Byram’s[13. Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.] description of the sojourner, and the way one develops through prolonged interaction with another culture. The goal of digital sojourn is to engage learners in a deep enough level of interaction that they can develop interculturally. To do this, three methods are combined: (1) interdependence, (2) multimodal communcation, and (3) reflection as part of the experience.

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The Experiment: An Eight-Week Facebook Exchange

In order to test out this method, I solicited the help of a teacher / researcher from Taiwan named Brent Kelsen. We first met through Research Gate <researchgate.net>.

After a few Skype chats, we decided to engage our students in 8 weeks of intercultural exchange using Facebook. For our initial pilot study we placed the students into Facebook groups which had on average 4 Taiwanese students and 4 Japanese students in each group.

Each week these students shared digital artifacts on topics such as food, music, movies and anime, tourists destinations, and the like. We also made sure to include a few weeks of free choice topics at the end.

As teachers we were concerned about whether students would participate, so we modeled the interaction ourselves each week by posting our own content.

In addition to sharing digital artifacts, students in Japan also engaged in weekly classroom based reflections on the exchange. They discussed the value of the exchange and what they hoped to get out of it, and how they could best engage the Taiwanese students in the exchange. At the end of the term, they also gave presentations in class concerning what they learned from the exchange and how it had helped them grow.

In order to measure intercultural development, I gave my students a questionnaire designed to measure intercultural sensitivity once before the exchange and once again after the exchange. The instrument I used was Chen and Starosta’s[14. Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (2000). The development and validation of the intercultural sensitivity scale. Human Communication, 3, 1-15. Retreived from digitalcommons.uri.edu] Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, a 24-item self-report questionnaire measuring 5 factors of intercultural sensitivity.

The Results: An Increase in Respect for Cultural Differences

Results showed a marked increase in respect for intercultural differences among participants (M diff = 1.6, SD = 1.2) over control (M diff = 0.1, SD = 2.5) with the conditions (t(52) = 2.73, p < .01, d = 0.7).

ISS - T2 vs C2** = p < .01

Exchange Metrics

I used a tool called Netvizz[15. Rieder, B. (2013). Studying Facebook via data extraction: the Netvizz application. In WebSci ’13 Proceedings of the 5th Annual ACM Web Science Conference (pp. 346-355). New York: ACM. DOI 10.1145/2464464.2464475] to “scrape” the Facebook posts and found that a total of 15,014 words were exchanged (including about a 15% contribution by teachers). Participants also supported their communication through paralinguistic means by sharing 94 photographs and 77 videos. Here is a wordle made from the 15,014 words exchanged by participants which highlights the most frequently used vocabulary by enlarging it in proportion to the others.wordle4

Conclusions

According to the results of the Intercultural Sensitivity questionnaire, participants learned to respect cultural differences. It was good to see that even when the exchange was not a physical one, intercultural development could be supported through the mixed methodology of digital sojourn. I feel that classroom reflections were the most interesting part of the exchange, as I was able to see how students grew through the process. With that in mind, I will close with a reflection from one of the student participants in this exchange.

I wanted to see Japan objectively, so I asked the question, “What images of Japan do Taiwanese have?” According to them, they think Japan is a traditional, innovative, and high quality country because of old structures, culture, nature, economy, and technology. However, some people hate Japan due to historical problems. This fact made me a little depressed, but one of the Taiwanese students mentioned that these problems can be resolved by communication and respect. I was amazed at his words and admired his thoughts, and then I realized that such exchange between younger generations are crucial to deepen mutual understanding. Therefore, I’ll find opportunities that bring me to exchange with foreign people again, and make efforts toward mutual comprehension.

References

Tech for Teach

PenPalSchools for Intercultural Development

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Last Fall, DMLL’s Kevin Ryan posted an introduction to PenPalSchools. Thanks to Kevin’s introduction, I thought I would try it out. Here is my review.

The first thing that I should mention is that PenPalSchools is made for teachers, by teachers. It hopes to make itself accessible to classrooms without financial support and so use of it is free; donations, however, are appreciated.

PenPalSchools is a Learning Management System (LMS) style tool. It allows participating teachers to manage the exchange from a central homepage. This is nice because there may be some concern about student participation, and even the maturity students may have when communicating with strangers from other parts of the world. Teachers can monitor exchanges and even delete messages if need be.

Continue reading “PenPalSchools for Intercultural Development”

Opinion

Digital Sojourn: The final frontier of Language Learning?

startrek2
Spock as a child in school on Vulcan (Star Trek, 2009)

 

O.K., so this is not the image of Spock everyone remembers. And with the recent passing of one of the world’s most iconic Sci-Fi legends, perhaps I should have tried to fit Leonard Nimoy’s classic, “Live long and prosper,” image in here somewhere (Perhaps I will still find a way). But, it just so happens that I was looking at this image from the J. J. Abrams version of the Star Trek inspired Vulcan educational system last week and wondering what our earthly final frontier of language learning might actually be. I believe I have come up with an answer–digital sojourn.

One of the big names in intercultural studies is Michael Byram. He described the difference between someone who is just beginning their study of intercultural communication and someone who has attained intercultural communicative competence. The former he describes as a tourist, the later as a sojourner. The tourist is just passing though, and perhaps looking for an interesting intercultural souvenir to take home; however, they look forward to returning to their familiar surroundings with everything just the way they left it. The sojourner, on the other hand, is fundamentally changed by their travels, affects change in others they meet along the way, and returns home to affect change upon their own culture (Byram, 1997).

With the digital age upon us, it seems we now have opportunity to update our pedagogy with regards to helping students develop their intercultural competence. With intercultural communication tied so closely to language learning, and intercultural communicative competence parallel to competence with use of English as a Lingua Franca, we have an obligation as teachers to pursue its development in our students.

Spock is famous for stating, “Computers make excellent and efficient servants, but I have no wish to serve under them.” As language teachers, we are often reminded of this when the argument comes up surrounding technology in the classroom. The technological landscape before us may seem at times to cause us to serve under it. I think it is safe to say that we would like to find ways to make it serve us.

I see the final frontier of language learning as that of digital sojourn. By digital sojourn I mean the use of technology to support language learner’s efforts to spend extended amounts of time “traveling” among a particular culture and its people. It is impractical for all of our students to spend years physically traveling in a foreign culture, however, with technology they can digitally sojourn.

There are many ways we as teachers can support digital sojourn inside and outside of our classroom, and with mobile technology becoming more and more prevalent the possibilities continue to grow. Before we are ready to travel the galaxy seeking new intercultural encounters, we should use those resources currently at our disposal to develop our intercultural skills here on earth. After all, we still have 48 years to go until “First Contact”.  \V/

Image by Dave Daring @ DeviantArt